Mass spectroscopy of tree ring material indicates a sharp, single-year rise in carbon-14 concentrations consistent with an extreme solar energetic particle event that occurred around 5410 BCE.
To peer into the farthest reaches of the universe, you must first build a giant underwater telescope.
Solar energetic particle events pose an acute risk to space travelers outside the protection of Earth’s magnetic field. A new initiative aims to quantify the danger.
New research shows that solar radiation levels are growing 10% faster than previously believed and that the radiation environment in space will worsen with time.
Energetic particle data from the Global Positioning System constellation opens avenues for new research.