The transmission of sunlight through Arctic sea ice depends on the presence of ice, snow, and melt ponds, data collected over 6 years reveal.
Heat pulse methods for measuring thermal, hydrologic, and other properties of soils have advanced our understanding of soil characteristics.
By combining changes in elevation with other data, scientists have developed a method for estimating the thickness of debris covering glaciers on whose water more than 800 million people depend.
Weather stations can be used to calibrate and validate albedo measurements from satellites, but they fail to account for variability across landscapes, overestimating how reflective our planet is.
A new German research consortium is investigating why near-surface air temperatures in the Arctic are rising more quickly than in the rest of the world.
Satellite data and modeling reveal a trend toward coarser-grained, more-light-absorbent snow.
Limited observational data sets and incomplete surface energy balance models constrain understanding of the driving processes for Greenland's ice sheet.