Researchers review the challenges and prospects of Earth System Models that incorporate a consistent closed energy budget.
A new analytical model describes how the amount and grain size of sediment transported by rivers influences bedrock channel width, which can be used to predict where rivers will widen or narrow.
Understanding how temperatures of cold-water streams respond to global warming could help clarify the impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems.
Evapotranspiration is the exchange of water vapor between land and the atmosphere, and it is hard to measure and model. A new study shows promise for its estimation over large, vegetated landscapes.
An analysis of the energy budget in the ocean estimates the Carnot work to be 110 terawatts and the ocean’s Carnot efficiency to be 0.86%.
A 3-year study of wetlands and cropland in a major California delta highlights the need to consider the physical effects of vegetation when planning land use changes.
A reexamination of the global water cycle shows that tropical coastlines exert a profound influence on atmospheric water circulation by wringing water vapor from the atmosphere.
Soil moisture can elevate overnight temperatures, offsetting daytime cooling, especially over areas of strong land-atmosphere interactions.
Road map for improving climate calls for 100% clean, renewable energy by 2050.