A new measurement technique has revealed that turf algae communities colonizing dead reefs have a dual role, adding new mineral material to the reefs during the day and taking it away at night.
Results of the first geographically based estimates of river nutrient supply indicate that 75% of dissolved nitrogen and 80% of phosphorus reach the open ocean.
Accounting for key soil and snow variables shows a much higher impact on simulated permafrost area than uncertainties in land cover and climate data.
From 1957 to 1965, 46 ships under 14 flags collected data for the International Indian Ocean Expedition. Now, 50 years later, scientists are planning a fresh effort to study the Indian Ocean.