CFCs and other halocarbons have long been known for causing an ozone hole over the Antarctic, but many of them are also powerful greenhouse gases.
For the first time, the connection between energetic in cloud pulse and terrestrial gamma‐ray flashes is confirmed in the Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderclouds experiment in Japan.
Satellite observational analysis confirms that lower-atmospheric stability and cloud clustering are major factors modulating the tropical radiation budget that had been suggested by modeling studies.
Volcanoes can warm as much as they cool. Prior simulations have neglected the important warming effects of sulfur dioxide emissions, making some results colder than they should be.
Global temperature responds in the same way to carbon dioxide as it does to methane or aerosol changes if the concept of effective radiative forcing is used to quantify the forcing strength.
An enhanced satellite remote sensing suite accurately measures ice particles, temperature, and water vapor.
Simulations that test different approaches to modeling radiation suggest a commonly used scheme fails to fully capture changes in midlatitude circulation associated with climate change.
3-D radiation-topography interaction, which can increase the sunlight absorption by the surface, is missing in all climate models, causing strong cold biases over the Tibetan Plateau.
Infrared emissions from nitric oxide and carbon dioxide in Earth’s upper atmosphere, which are closely tied to incoming solar radiation, are drastically lower than in the previous solar cycle.
Cloud droplet size changes with height, but passive sensors are virtually blind to see it; however, combining passive with active sensors helps profile it in vertically inhomogeneous warm clouds.