Using machine learning to represent sub-grid processes in weather and climate models holds promise, but also faces challenges. Incorporating physical knowledge can help.
CFCs and other halocarbons have long been known for causing an ozone hole over the Antarctic, but many of them are also powerful greenhouse gases.
For the first time, the connection between energetic in cloud pulse and terrestrial gamma‐ray flashes is confirmed in the Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderclouds experiment in Japan.
Global temperature responds in the same way to carbon dioxide as it does to methane or aerosol changes if the concept of effective radiative forcing is used to quantify the forcing strength.
3-D radiation-topography interaction, which can increase the sunlight absorption by the surface, is missing in all climate models, causing strong cold biases over the Tibetan Plateau.
Cloud droplet size changes with height, but passive sensors are virtually blind to see it; however, combining passive with active sensors helps profile it in vertically inhomogeneous warm clouds.
The Madden-Julian Oscillation drives storms across the Indian and Pacific oceans every 30 to 60 days. New research suggests that clouds absorbing and reemitting radiative energy play a key role.
A new model reveals how cumulus convection, humidity, and tropical circulations interact as global temperatures rise.
Models show that an abrupt increase in carbon dioxide emissions would trigger feedback processes that would change Earth's hydrological cycle.