Remote sensing measurements for water vapor isotopic composition enable us to assess how convective aggregation influences the atmospheric hydrological cycle.
An internally generated 150-day periodicity is newly identified in the Southern Hemisphere extratropical large-scale atmospheric circulation, which arises from the annular mode’s propagating regime.
Subseasonal weather forecast ensembles are a useful tool for overcoming the inherent difficulty of quantifying extreme weather risk caused by data scarcity.
Atmospheric river variability over the last millennium is primarily driven by north-south displacements in zonal winds induced by the annular modes.
The two hemispheres feature the same planetary albedo despite a larger land fraction in the north, because storms over the southern ocean are cloudier than their northern counterparts.
Elevation of Central American orography significantly reduces the pervasive tropical rainfall bias by blocking the easterlies and consequently warming the northeastern tropical Pacific.
Both satellite observations and model simulations reveal that more aggregated convection amplifies the increase in extreme rainfall events on a year-to-year basis.
Satellite observational analysis confirms that lower-atmospheric stability and cloud clustering are major factors modulating the tropical radiation budget that had been suggested by modeling studies.
Ocean warming patterns are critical to climate science given their role in determining regional climate changes and modulating how much the globe may warm with elevated CO2 levels.
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