Meteoric ions dominate the Jovian lower ionosphere due to their long lifetimes. Due to the large densities of the meteoric ions, conductance is enhanced independently of local time.
The first Jovian off-equator Energetic Neutral Atom viewings reveal distinct emissions from Jupiter and the orbits of Io and Europa: Energetic particle injections surprisingly occur inside Io’s orbit.
Very Low Frequency transmitters used for communications with submarines modify the dynamics of energetic electrons in the inner radiation belt and the slot region.
Green-line arc is found to be embedded within large-scale upward field aligned currents while red-line-only arc is found to be associated with low-energy precipitation bursts.
Precipitations of electrons with energies greater than 30 kiloelectron volts from the slot region penetrate at low altitude and can contribute to destroy ozone.