Polarity reversals in the solar wind magnetic field disconnect the magnetic field trailing behind Venus, allowing ions from the atmosphere to escape.
Simulations show how changes in electron density can trap electromagnetic waves and heat electrons in the ionosphere.
Research shows that 80% of graduate students who received their Ph.D. between 2001 and 2009 continued to publish for at least 3 years, and 60% are still publishing.
NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission detects energy differences in electrons scattered by magnetic reconnection.
Scientists use sounding rockets to show that small oscillations in electric fields can be just as important for atmospheric Joule heating as the presence of the electric field itself.
Models based on the Sun's polar magnetic fields performed best in simulating the solar cycle and predicting solar behavior.