Turbulent fluxes are physical quantities that describe the exchanges of heat and momentum through the air-sea interface. They are critical to the processes of weather and climate change. A limited understanding of air-sea exchanges makes weather prediction difficult and lead to uncertainty in climate projection. A big challenge is the lack of efficient technology to make measurements.
Bourras et al.  have obtained in-situ observations on a novel wave-following platform in four oceanic regions and under different conditions. Various parameterizations for surface fluxes and related coefficients are calibrated against the observations. The authors only collected data under moderate winds, thus observations on turbulent fluxes under strong winds (such as hurricane and typhoon) still require a breakthrough.
Citation: Bourras, D., Cambra, R., Marié, L., Bouin, M.‐N., Baggio, L., Branger, H., et al. . Air‐sea turbulent fluxes from a wave‐following platform during six experiments at sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC014803
—Lei Zhou, Editor, JGR: Oceans