Source: Space Weather
Ruck and Themens  provides an example of how space weather conditions may sometimes be exploited to provide useful practical capabilities. They model how the coverage (range and area) provided by an over-the-horizon radar might be modified when space weather conditions cause strong aurora in the field of view of the radar. That aurora will generate significant ionization at E-region altitudes (around 100 km), ionization that will modify the paths of signals travelling from and to the radar. The authors show how in some conditions, for example during winter nights when the E-region is usually very weak, the presence of aurora could enhance radar coverage at shorter ranges. They simulate its use to track aircraft flights and discuss the challenge of signal interpretation needed to make this work in a realistic operational environment.
Citation: Ruck, J. J., & Themens, D. R. . Impacts of auroral precipitation on HF propagation: A hypothetical over-the-horizon radar case study. Space Weather, 19, e2021SW002901. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021SW002901
—Michael A. Hapgood, Editor, Space Weather