Hydrological observations of cosmic ray neutrons scattered by water in soil can also provide information on space weather events such as Forbush decreases and ground level enhancements.
The assessment of space weather event forecasts would benefit from more nuanced approaches that take account of event intensities peaking near the thresholds used to identify such events.
Simulations of radiation storm fluxes on real flight paths highlight how severe space weather could expose aircrew and passengers on busy transatlantic routes to significant radiation doses.
Better real-time estimates of thermospheric density are vital to the safe management of satellite traffic in Low Earth orbit, ensuring those satellites continue to deliver critical services.
Solar radio bursts are background noise for satellite-based radio observations that monitor soil moisture, so, with appropriate processing, those observations can provide data on radio bursts.
Lyman-alpha emissions convey a major part of the solar-flare photon energy reaching Earth and play a significant role in flare-driven enhancements of ionospheric conductivity.
A new simulation of space-weather driven geoelectric fields at the land/sea conductivity boundary shows how these fields are magnified by both coastal effects and inhomogeneous land conductivity.
A short, must-read, report for anyone developing new space weather forecasts.
The transition of space weather science from research to operations needs a framework with both good science and a good dialogue with end users.
Better forecasts of space-weather driven changes in thermospheric density are urgently needed to ensure safe management of the rapidly growing volume of space traffic in low Earth orbit.