Source: Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
The Brazil-Malvinas Confluence, where the warm salty southward Brazil Current meets the cold fresh northward Malvinas Current, is known as the hotspot of water mass transformation and exchange between the Antarctic and South Atlantic Oceans. Although previous studies pointed out that mesoscale eddies play an important role in water mass modifications, the importance of 0.001-1-meter scale turbulent mixing has been unclear.
Using observations of large-scale temperature-salinity distributions and 0.001-1-meter scale turbulence microstructures, Orúe-Echevarría et al.  find that turbulent mixing, which can mix water vertically (across-density surfaces), plays an equally important role as that induced by lateral (along-density surfaces) stirring in transforming water masses in upper 500 meter depth. The same methods based on the theory can be used for the data with higher spatial resolutions to diagnose the relative importance between vertical mixing and lateral starring, that is still elusive in many different regions of the world ocean.
Citation: Orúe-Echevarría, D., Naveira Garabato, A. C., Polzin, K. L., Forryan, A., & Pelegrí, J. L. (2023). Mixing and overturning across the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 128, e2022JC018730. https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JC018730
—Takeyoshi Nagai, Editor, JGR: Oceans