During the late Quaternary period, a series of abrupt climate changes in the tropics and sub-tropics driven by changes in ocean circulation were both dramatic and disruptive.
There are various explanations for how the Earth’s continents form, develop, and change but challenges remain in fully understanding the driving forces behind plate tectonics on our planet.
New satellite observations of polar stratospheric clouds have advanced our understanding of how, when, and where they form, their composition, and their role in ozone depletion.
Traditional physical models are no longer the only foundational tools for processing geophysical data; “big data” help to reveal the laws of geophysics from new angles with exciting results so far.
Drought should be considered and modeled as a process, including human–nature interactions, and not merely a product of water deficit.
Wind has been one of the most robust, diverse, long-lasting, and impactful heliophysics missions ever to have been carried out.
New models should consider drought a process, not merely a product, and should factor in the huge variety of causes, effects, and feedbacks that play out in the real world.
Satellite observations show how tropical forest carbon fluxes respond to changes in water from climate variability.
New insights from observations and theory suggest that the essential drivers of Earth’s summer monsoons are not as obvious as was previously thought.