Geochemistry, Mineralogy, Volcanology News

Miners Left a Pollution Trail in the Great Lakes 6000 Years Ago

Scientists find evidence of ancient copper mining in polluted lake sediments from Isle Royale National Park.

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Moose, wolves, and a few intrepid humans roam the wilds of Michigan’s Isle Royale National Park today, but thousands of years ago, the island boasted a thriving mining industry.

A glacially rounded copper nugget, as an example of the raw material worked by people of the Old Copper Complex. Photo by Rob Lavinsky (CC BY-SA 3.0).
A glacially rounded copper nugget, as an example of the raw material worked by people of the Old Copper Complex. Photo by Rob Lavinsky (CC BY-SA 3.0).

The veins of copper that ripple through its bedrock drew the attention of early Native Americans, who used the metal to make tools. However, many details of their activities—such as when they mined—remain hidden behind the thick haze of time.

Now, new research suggests that Isle Royale’s mining boom peaked about 6000 years ago and left a legacy of aquatic pollution. The high levels of copper, lead, and potassium in sediments from a cove on the island point to a long and intense period of indigenous mining. Researchers presented these results, published recently in the journal The Holocene, in a poster session on 16 December at the 2014 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.

Evidence of Ancient Mining

European explorers first noticed evidence for indigenous copper mines back in the 1800s. In some places, miners had dug down more than 20 meters into bedrock—an impressive feat considering their limited tools. However, without a way to date the pits directly, the timing of these mining activities could only be loosely constrained by the ages of copper artifacts found across the Great Lakes region. Archaeologists have dated many objects associated with the so-called Old Copper Complex, but the objects span thousands of years.

Copper artifacts created by people of the Old Copper Complex.
Copper artifacts left by people of the Old Copper Complex.

The mines caught the interest of David Pompeani, a Ph.D. student at the University of Pittsburgh, who went looking for clues beneath the chilly waters of Lake Superior. He hypothesized that chemicals released during the process of mining and annealing copper would leak into the lake and settle in its sediments. These sediments could then be dated using carbon-14 and other radioactive isotopes.

One such indicator of mining activity is lead, which would have leached from mine tailings and vaporized when miners heated copper to shape the metal, only to collect again in nearby waters. Pompeani and his colleagues previously found lead pollution in 8000- to 5000-year-old sediments along the south shore of Lake Superior. They interpreted this pollution as evidence of an extended era of widespread copper mining on Michigan’s Keweenaw Peninsula.

A Focus on Isle Royale

Several questions followed. How far did these ancient miners range? Did they migrate from one mine to another? To learn more, Pompeani’s team jumped across the lake to Isle Royale, a streak of rock that lies just off the Canadian shore. There, indigenous miners excavated the largest known pre-Columbian copper mine on top of Minong Ridge.

In nearby McCargoe Cove, a deep inlet that cuts diagonally across the island’s glacial striations, the researchers found elevated levels of lead and copper, along with potassium—a by-product of the fires used for mining and annealing. At their peak, lead and copper concentrations reached values an order of magnitude greater than background levels and about half as high as those associated with modern contamination.

The Fate of Ancient Miners

The spike in pollution began 6500 years ago and lasted for about a millennium. Then, abruptly, it ended, suggesting mining ended too. Pollution did not rise again until the mid-1800s, when mining resumed on Isle Royale, smelting began on the Keweenaw Peninsula, and leaded gasoline emissions grew.

The scientists do not know why mining screeched to a halt. They speculate that miners may have exhausted all the easily accessible veins and moved on. Climate changes may have also played a role—evidence from lake sediments around the Midwest suggests climate began to get dryer. In time, geologic clues may continue to provide more information.

—Julia Rosen, Writer

Citation: Rosen, J. (2014), Miners left a pollution trail in the Great Lakes 6000 years ago, Eos, 95, doi:10.1029/2014EO021147.

© 2014. The authors. CC BY-NC 3.0
  • ΧΑΡΑΛΑΜΠΟς

    corr page 2 not 2000 tn but 2.000.000 tn ! missing

  • ΧΑΡΑΛΑΜΠΟς

    corr page 2 no 3000 th but 3.000.000 tn !!!!!

  • ΧΑΡΑΛΑΜΠΟς

    1. of 5

    Probably, we are all either out of context, either out of subject. In
    order to transport even a 10th of this quantity of toneage, all
    logistics (provisions, etc, etc ), needed to be added as well, the only
    transport means is SHIP. In 2017, 90% minimum of planetary freight is
    made by ship, and not by bycicle, nor by foot, trucks, trains or planes.
    We can at least accept this EVIDENCE !!!!! So, as from 9000 years of
    our era, things have not changed. And evidently concerning your mines,
    it is of no interest for us if in the 17th or 18th centuries, others
    have been present. We have still 8000 years to finally accept that all
    the “others” didn t have a clue about what is a ship, the naval
    engineering nor the maritime art. At the same time, these “others” did
    not have an advanced civilisation to orientate themselves, to make
    correct calculations through advanced mathematics, nor they had
    performing navigation instruments. Exemple: magnetic needle and ancient
    kinds of computers (Antikithyra mechanic laptop, found in a small boat,
    after the ending of the Aigean civilisation). It becomes clear that, if
    we found this laptop in a small boat, I am curious to know what they had
    at their Universities and Academies, probably computers similar to our
    computers today with mechanic energy, who knows? we don t understand the
    mass of the tonneage (500.000 tn) and nobody can conceive of which
    period we are talking about, but certainly it was not yesterday.
    Uluburun is nothing. The only civilisation with very good ships (30 to
    60 m), extremely advanced, is the Aigean civilisation, during this
    period. These ships generally built with an outstanding quality
    (akarnania greece), delta of Akelos river, different kinds of pinades
    and very high quality of ship engineering, strong coque, very advanced
    antenna of ship front, in order to be able to tie the ship in sand or
    rocks, and ship rear low and short with mechanical system of platforms
    for easy tying to constructed harbours. These ships were very strong
    with 1 or 2 mats well tied together to the front, rear and both sides of
    the ship (string “protonos” “epitonos” and “plagiotonos”) to be able to
    resist to extreme weather conditions in ocean navigation, with
    different types of sails, squared or triangular, and sufficient maritime
    art to use the increase or decrease of the sails in the tempests or in
    normal conditions navigation, with 5 different positions 1-2-3-4-5 (moud
    positions). They can only come from the Aigean civilisation and
    maritime art. Without entering into any details of bibliography,
    everyone can easily look for aigean or greek maritime art. Before 15th
    century after C, the only advanced maritime engineering during minimum
    2500 years comes from the Aiegean sea civilisation (see trireme,
    definitive construction 3000 years of our era Korinthos). I talk
    exclusively about this ship trireme, because it is the only ship that,
    until 16th century after C, had the ability, easily, to navigate under
    whatever condition and with an incomparable speed. It was also the only
    ship that wasn t afraid of any weather. All ships built as a development
    copy of the monoreme, bireme or trireme, were bad copies, without any
    capacity of fast maneuvring (the trireme could easily turn on itself,
    like a tank, with an incredible movement of 30 degrees). This coque was
    perfecly developed 3000 years ago, in its 3 variants (mono, bi and
    trireme). It is true that the trireme was not exclusively used by the
    military navy. It is impossible that 3000 years ago at Korynthos, aliens
    have built this ship. The only explanation is that a tradition of naval
    engineering existed long before, 1000s of years before. The other kinds
    of coque (monoreme or bireme) were used for exploration or commercial
    missions of long distance.

  • ΧΑΡΑΛΑΜΠΟς

    5.
    Your help will be precious.
    Without entering into the details
    of all existing informations, I would like to insist on the data of a
    poorly known geographer, Crates of Mallis, who is the opposite of the
    ingenuous Ptolemeus.
    Talanton is nothing else than the very well know
    all over the world Golden fleece, the metallic prehistoric “turtle”, it
    should be shining (copper colour) and has effectively the shape of a
    goat skin with its 4 legs, easy to manipulate, to load or to deload
    specially by 2 persons. Through all this, I suppose that if we want to
    be correct, human history is not unknown, on the contrary, it appears
    clearly in front of us.
    ps. It is obvious that actual Greece or its
    neighbouring countries do not have the arrogance of being the continuity
    or he legacy of this civilisation, simply the Greeks have an extreme
    easiness of reading or interpreting the texts without error, and also
    that the impressive quantity of megalithic rests in Greece or near, are
    not dedicated to any king, any grave nor any divinity. This
    extraordinary megalythic Aigean period refers specially to the
    collective use, dams, bridges, roads, supporting systems for mountains
    (pelagians walls), drying of lakes (through incredible complex systems
    for that time), rivers canalisation, and particularly in Crete, high
    complex systems of buildings of 50.000 m2 and 6 floors not dedicated to
    anybody, but simply built as a production collective center, with
    technological progress and engineering which are unthinkable for that
    period (schools, sewers, kindergarden, collective kitchens, etc…), and
    above all full of artifacts which are unthinkable for that period. When
    the English archeologist Evans has found these structures in 1900, he
    called them “palaces”. These are everything except palaces. Despite all
    our thanks towards Evans, the state of the archeology in 1900 was more
    or less the level of Indiana Jones (treasure hunting), as many other
    sciences. Nowadays, we are at a different level, and for us it is
    impossible to imagine a room where is a throne chair, at the ground
    level, in this 50.000 m2 complex, and that this room measures less than
    10m2, and where the toilets and the baths measures more than 100 m2. It
    is true that in this place there is like a throne chair with a back, but
    all the benches around without back are located at the same level, and
    not below, and are very near the so called throne. It is more obvious
    that this room is more a meeting or assembly room, used to discuss all
    together and taking decisions on the community or on commercial issues.
    We have also to add that this complex is only found in Crete in all the
    Aigean world, and that despite the similar and equal technological
    advance of the other Aigean sites, we do not find there any complex as
    big as in Crete, we have found individual houses and collective
    buildings. The Cretan complexes are found on the costal lands and also
    in the center of the island, some at 1200 m of altitude, depending of
    the production needs. We have to accept that, without the ships of these
    civilisations, we could not go very far with simple caravans. The
    transportation of freight is extremely heavy. A short information on the
    writings: it is obvious that all writings that we have from them are
    from left to right, given that 80% of human beings are right handed, and
    that if we use the writing from right to left, it is very difficul to
    see what we write and also we make the ink dirty with our hands. We have
    found also accountancy records in clay tablets, written in a
    telegraphic way. Only accountancy records, and nothing else, that were
    thrown in the big stocking buildings, because the rats in general do not
    eat clay. The Aigean world were supposed to write on kinds of paper,
    and there are quite a lot of kinds of paper, the climate of this
    territory hasn t allowed the preservation of any paper. The position of
    many archeologists is rather ridiculous when they talk on the
    Mesopotamian, Hitite or other archives, done stupidly on clay, because
    if it was that, my message to you for example would have needed 30 ships
    and 100.000 men. I think we should stop of being ingenuous, and if any
    state entity has done such thing of recording everything on clay, it has
    done it for sacralisation, superstition, manipulation and oppression;
    if this is not the case, then it is by simple stupidity. The archives,
    even the confidential ones, dont have to weight tones, and shouldn t be
    put at the only place which cannot be defended, on the ground, because
    on their weight, but also if they are confidential, they cannot be
    manipulated by thousands of persons. What kind of confidentiality are we
    talking about? In one way or another, in the Aigean world, we have
    proofs of protowriting, impossible to read, of minimum 7000 years of our
    era. I wanted to say with all this that there is no conspiration, but
    only questions of power, interest and vision of freedom or oppression.
    That s why we are in this situation. Maybe time has come to stop all
    innocence, to get nearer our ancestors and treat them as we treat
    ourselves.
    Thanking you in advance,
    Lambrou Xaralambos

  • ΧΑΡΑΛΑΜΠΟς

    4.
    That s maybe why Crete,
    always independent and self sufficient in resources, becomes the
    maritime leader and takes the maritime power from the other big Aigean
    regions (specially from the north aigean regions which suffered most of
    the cataclysm damages). It is also worth telling, that the political
    structures of all the Aigean different regions and powers is highly
    cooperative and equalising (no hereditary chiefs), always aiming at the
    collective wealth, based of individual freedom, that is, on the complete
    opposite side of all other big world powers, that are based on
    totalitarism, oppression of individuals and solely aiming at achieving a
    social peace by all means (religion, fear, terror, etc), while keeping
    unchanged the collective poorness, except for the leader classes. 3650
    years before our era, all this rich and free civilisation, travelling
    and transporting everything to and from everywhere in the world, is
    confronted at a 1rst time with the terrible eruption of the Thira
    vulcano (Santorini) and at a 2nd time with very serious earthquakes. We
    don t know if they continued to navigate outside the mediterranean, but
    it is highly probable, even on a smaller scale, given that their
    political structures evolved towards systems that were near the
    feudalism (even free feudalism), more occupied in making local wars to
    keep their own local feudalism or in being pirates (see “people of the
    sea” in all the Mediterranean). All the semi independent sites created
    within this period and until 2900 before our era, have implosed, mainly
    through internal revolutions. We have to assume that they couldn t have
    any other future, as all the political entities around them used a
    system called “imperial”, through the continuous increase of harbour
    taxes in order to support their so called social peace, and they
    finished by being isolated with their big maritime and commercial know
    how, being obliged sometimes to make commercial wars. All this
    knowledge, know how, and memory began to disappear progressively or
    became the secret knowledge of few scientists. From 3400 until 150 of
    our era, the period is quite obscure, unclear, and all began to be
    forgotten. Except that we have a short period with Alexander who
    attempted to open new routes towards the East, based on ancient
    knowledge (it is obvious that they knew a lot of things, and more over
    they knew that because of the sun coming from the East, it comes out
    from a very big ocean after the “big continent”. In Alexander s period,
    it was much easier to go to the Americas by the East maritime route,
    given that they still were a maritime power and having the knowledge
    from past ages that the Pacific was inhabited. The only thing that we
    are sure about is that Alexander builds in India a very big flotte,
    maybe 1000 ships, and that his big amiral, Nearchos (from Crete !), has
    mapped the different coasts, from India to the Persian Gulf or maybe
    also from the India peninsula to Indonesia, but only with 100-120 ships.
    After the strange death of Alexander, the whereabouts of his admiral
    are unclear, but one thing that can be supposed is that the big admiral
    returned to India, took all the big flotte with and went to the Americas
    following the East route, based on what he learned in his studies).
    Something is sure, that is, until the ending of the so called classical
    period, there is a deliberated policy of forgetting, in contrast with
    the period preceding Alexander. With the advent of the roman empire, and
    for very well known reasons, that is, to support the pax romana and its
    stablishment, there is a systematic policy of destroying all the
    evidences, knowledge, proofs and writings from the past and ancient
    times that did not refer to the Roman empire, which aimed to exercise
    its power only through superstition, religion, but absolutely not
    through science and knowledge. Despite of this systematic destruction,
    90% of the memory was destroyed in the 7th century, not all has been
    destroyed. Only 2% has been saved, but for the period before 3650,
    everything is plenty of paradoxes, contradictions. In the mythology, we
    have already the 4 periods of Gods, that have to be seen from a
    geological, climatological and chronological point of view: the period
    of Cronos and Rea, the period of the Titans, of the Giants and finally,
    of the Olympians. In all these periods however, all these Gods, always
    worked and acted in concertation, through a council. I do not see how
    come we have to add a long list of bibliography, at an archeological
    level we still find ourselves at an academic stage, with an obsession of
    compacting all chronology towards the decreasing, and this has much to
    do with the human mentality, as man thinks (s)he is unique, likes to
    create every time more state entities, with the consequence of
    increasing nationalisms, all this, in order to avoid the criticism of
    any supranational ideology. The only thing that we could write is that
    the studies about the reality of the Aigean world are advancing, with
    more and more surprising evidences and confirmations on their endless
    knowledge and know how. Also that, except their direct neighbours, we
    lack of concrete information on marvellous and surprising archeological
    findings all over the world. On the contrary, this civilisation, in
    their memory and writings, offers a lot of precious information and
    pedigree on many events. But we continue to be “glued” to their last
    3000 years of events, without taking seriously in consideration their
    oldest writings and evidences found, maybe because we do not want to be
    confronted nor accept a complete different vision of life, and we
    continue with the one that we have built for the last 3000 years, urban
    myth. As an example, Plutarchos describes exactly the travel by ship to
    the Americas, with exact distances, sound explanations on Gibraltar,
    then Galice, after that, Brittany (let s not forget that Galice,
    Brittany and present Ireland are still inhabited by celtic populations,
    and that the greek word keltos comes from the verb kelevo which means
    the messenger, the stranger but also the one who brings new things).
    After Brittany, the travel continues to the north of the Eirlandic
    islands (UK and Ireland), and then the navigation towards the northwest
    to the island of Ogigia (present Iceland). After, the navigation
    continues to the West for 5 days into a deep, thick and swirling ocean
    (swirl of the gulf stream). All the writings of the Aigean on the
    navigation give plenty of precious information on the movements and
    streams of the ocean, on the tectonic movements, on the depth of the
    roller of the gulf stream (800-900 m deep) and other streams, and that
    the oceans turn all around the earth with their streams like a very big
    river. They also talk on the kurosiwo stream. They equally knew the
    Alizes, and it is obvious that they had very advanced navigation
    instruments. They arrived to another island called Thouli (Greenland).
    Let s not forget that in another peak of temperature, the vikings gave
    the name of “Groenland” to the present Greenland, as the culture was
    possible then. This is not the case nowadays because the earth continues
    to cool down. There, according to Plutarchos, we are at Kronion pelagos
    with the information on the fact that during summer, night only last
    for 1 hour. From there, after 5 days towards the Southwest, they come to
    a sea plenty of sediments of earth and opposite streams called Kronion
    gulf. They explained us that it mesures approximately the same than the
    present Azof sea (Maionities according to him), and that it is located
    at the same terrestrial paralell that the Azof sea, and from there they
    probably enter into the Great lakes in order to extract the copper. All
    these accurate informations cannot come simply from the imagination of a
    man, Plutarchos, they are written in a part of his books called “on the
    face in the moon” and eveybody can read it. His writings contains much
    more information on other parts of the world, on climatological,
    geological conditions, that we can avoid for the moment, but they give
    us the possibility to revisit all the tales that have been told for the
    last 3-2000 years. I seize this opportunity to ask to our United States
    friends some help in looking for, not the Uluburun shipwreck (the
    Mediterranean is full of Uluburuns), but to the copper talents
    (talanton) with rectangular shape, weighting 30 kgs approx, with 4
    corners to allow to load, that normally could be found in significant
    numbers, from Minnesota to the canadian island of St Laurent, to
    remember the high dignity and mentality of the amerindians of North
    America, and also the famous 1934 excavation in Tennessee, with the
    extraordinary quantity of moulds with the shape of talanton to be able
    to melt and give shape to the copper, in a chronological period when the
    autochtonous populations were not mesolythic, nor calcolythich, but
    solely stone. The worst of all is that the shape of the moulds for the
    copper is still the talanton shape everywhere we look at. This is at
    least suspicious, isn t it? What is the correlation between the Uluburum
    shipwreck, the talanton and Tennessee, at 5.500 of our era? I have the
    impression that, in front of such evidences, we have to try to be less
    arrogant and be able to globalize. Despite of all, good faith is a must.

  • ΧΑΡΑΛΑΜΠΟς

    3.

    Geological data: 18.000 years
    before our era = end of the last big ice age. World sea level at north
    hemisphere: – 150/125 m compared to today s level (here we have to say
    that they probably learn to navigate, at least as the Aigean sea is
    concerned, at the latest warm age 120.000 years ago, which is a
    supposition/nearly evidence from the Archeological USA institute of
    Athens, in their research of different points of Crete, island which is,
    by the way, scientifically proved that it is an island for the last 5
    millions years. Moreover, the different tools found in Crete, but built
    from elements that did not exist in Crete, proves again that maritime
    navigation existed from this time to transport materials, goods, etc.
    As
    from 18.000 before C and the ice melting, with short periods in between
    of cold age, the level of oceans/seas increased an average of 5
    cm/year, with a cataclysm around 12.500 (named Ogigos, probably because a
    meteor falls into the Great Lakes of North America), destroying the
    Clovis civilisation of North Am. (they didn t die all of them of
    indigestion, after having eaten millions of mammouths). At that time, we
    have a mini ice age for 1000 or 2000 years. In year 9000-9300 of our
    era, because of the acceleration of ice melting, we have also the
    highest peak of temperature after the years 120.000 and given the
    continuous increase of sea level until the near stabilisation of 9.000
    (Defkalion cataclysm), in the Aigean civilisation however, very
    populated, and confronted with these geological difficulties, they are
    obliged to continue their activities, their relations with the others,
    etc.., that s why their level of maritime navigation increases ut to a
    scientific level. We have to add to this the fact that they enjoyed very
    good weather conditions and temperatures (annual average 17-18
    degrees), contrary to the rest of the world located more north that
    them, where populations are confronted with an average temperature of 7
    degrees (exemple, Rome region, Pyrineas, line of Tennessee in NA, and
    north of India). Beyond this line, towards North, all territories are in
    post permafrost situation, with extremely bad conditions, cold, tundra,
    and very high humidity, without any prospect of development. As from
    500 kms beyond the aigean towards the south, we have a jungle climate,
    and later tropical forest, without any chance to develop from hunters
    and harvesters culture. At this moment, because of a certain
    stabilisation around 9000-9300, the Aigean civilisation could develop
    themselves, not in a arythmetical way, but rather geometrical, at all
    levels. Evidently, the maritime transportation and use of metals become
    their specialisation in order to create wealth. This civilisation is
    significantly different from the others, maybe because of the geological
    dispersion of their territories (continental, islands), the people have
    the same mentality, probably the same language, but they are not
    oppressed by any central authority or power, and because of that, they
    are not oppressed either by any totalitarian religion that could be used
    by any power to increase its authority. Given also their advanced
    maritime art, they were not obliged to preserve any kind of political
    system of social peace, like any other totalitarian society that had on
    the contrary the obligation to preserve and save their daily life, food
    and existence in order to be able to face worse days. It is probable
    that Crete, and only Crete, had more that 2000 ships, without mentioning
    all the other territories of the Aigean civilisation (islands, Minor
    Asia coasts, and present continental Greece), all this ensured their
    geometrical development and wealth, that allowed them to travel all
    around the world with their ships, searching more and more and new
    resources. Their development gave them very high life expectancy and
    advanced health and hygienic conditions, that resulted in a exponential
    increase of their population. In theory, the highest de-icing peak came
    at the pagos period, 7500-7000 of our era. From a geological point of
    view, at world s level, the limit of de-icing of all calotes has been
    reached. Pagos in greek means solid, stabilisated, rock, and ice (see
    Arios Pagos = first world court). The Aigean development continued
    without interruption until approx the Dardanos cataclysm (5400-5300 of
    our era). This cataclysm may explain why the american mines or others,
    either stopped, or decreased significantly. The same applied to the
    maritime travels. The Dardanos event is also very important for the
    Mediterranean from an historical perspective. It was the time of the
    affair between Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas: either the
    Mediterranean sea goes into the Black sea, either the great lake in
    present Russia -formed by very big rivers and ice melting- brokes the
    Dardanelos isthm and goes into the Mediterranean, we don t know but
    whatever happened of the two had very serious consequences for the
    Aigean civilisation (destruction of cities, harbours, ships, etc) which
    decreased the maritime transport for a while.

  • ΧΑΡΑΛΑΜΠΟς

    2

    For short distances, simple ships (pig
    ships) were used for transporting significant quantities of goods.
    Uluburun is exactly this kind of ship, excessively young, 3300 years ago
    of our era. You may search the shipwreck of Dokos, of similar kind, but
    5200 years of our era. In this case, it is evident that no copper hasn t
    been transported from one island to another in the Aigean sea, but on
    the contrary, high quantities of wine. This kind of ship were
    exclusively used from one harbour to the other (see navigation of
    Portolanos), with continuous stops, like the trucks nowadays, in order
    to load and deload the goods once and again, to rentabilise the costs.
    Everywhere in the world, this sytem has not changed.
    Now we come
    back to mono/bi/trireme, with their navigation data: speed cruise in
    normal conditions, either with sails or with remes: from 5 to 7 knots.
    Maximum speed: 12 knots. Urgency angle self turn: from 300 to 330
    degrees. Water friction: practically insignificant, as an ex. the 8 or 9
    remes of present competition boats have a water resistance 60% more
    than those ships and also, they cannot turn. Given the high development
    of the machinery of these ships, the navigation under whatever condition
    and whatever distance becomes easy. If we add to this the fact that
    they were scientifically highly advanced, thanks to their scientists and
    the consequent application of their continuous research and study,
    we from the 1st period of bronze in the mediterranean until its end
    9000 – 3000 of our era (iron age), it was necessary for the existing
    civilisation approximatively 3000 tn of copper, the other metals neede
    for allying (lead, zinc) existed in situ. The copper resources in the
    ancient world sums 500.000 tn + 500.000 tn from Michigan = 1 million tn.
    Our real problem is not what we tell, write, etc for the last 3000
    years, but on the contrary to look for the missing 2.000 tn and where
    they came from. I believe that manipulation of history from I don t know
    who must stop in front of such evidences. On the same level, all the
    stupidities on the triangular sail (genova) – and why not spinaker?,
    must stop equally, because this sail is only used in order to facilitate
    navigation in rivers and lakes, this was used 20.000 years ago. Why?
    Because it is the easiest way to use in the case of a single man. So
    please, let s stop to consider ourselves as the most intelligent people,
    and our ancestors as the stupid ones.

  • ΧΑΡΑΛΑΜΠΟς

    Probably, we are all either out of context, either out of subject. In order to transport even a 10th of this quantity of toneage, all logistics (provisions, etc, etc ), needed to be added as well, the only transport means is SHIP. In 2017, 90% minimum of planetary freight is made by ship, and not by bycicle, nor by foot, trucks, trains or planes. We can at least accept this EVIDENCE !!!!! So, as from 9000 years of our era, things have not changed. And evidently concerning your mines, it is of no interest for us if in the 17th or 18th centuries, others have been present. We have still 8000 years to finally accept that all the “others” didn t have a clue about what is a ship, the naval engineering nor the maritime art. At the same time, these “others” did not have an advanced civilisation to orientate themselves, to make correct calculations through advanced mathematics, nor they had performing navigation instruments. Exemple: magnetic needle and ancient kinds of computers (Antikithyra mechanic laptop, found in a small boat, after the ending of the Aigean civilisation). It becomes clear that, if we found this laptop in a small boat, I am curious to know what they had at their Universities and Academies, probably computers similar to our computers today with mechanic energy, who knows? we don t understand the mass of the tonneage (500.000 tn) and nobody can conceive of which period we are talking about, but certainly it was not yesterday. Uluburun is nothing. The only civilisation with very good ships (30 to 60 m), extremely advanced, is the Aigean civilisation, during this period. These ships generally built with an outstanding quality (akarnania greece), delta of Akelos river, different kinds of pinades and very high quality of ship engineering, strong coque, very advanced antenna of ship front, in order to be able to tie the ship in sand or rocks, and ship rear low and short with mechanical system of platforms for easy tying to constructed harbours. These ships were very strong with 1 or 2 mats well tied together to the front, rear and both sides of the ship (string “protonos” “epitonos” and “plagiotonos”) to be able to resist to extreme weather conditions in ocean navigation, with different types of sails, squared or triangular, and sufficient maritime art to use the increase or decrease of the sails in the tempests or in normal conditions navigation, with 5 different positions 1-2-3-4-5 (moud positions). They can only come from the Aigean civilisation and maritime art. Without entering into any details of bibliography, everyone can easily look for aigean or greek maritime art. Before 15th century after C, the only advanced maritime engineering during minimum 2500 years comes from the Aiegean sea civilisation (see trireme, definitive construction 3000 years of our era Korinthos). I talk exclusively about this ship trireme, because it is the only ship that, until 16th century after C, had the ability, easily, to navigate under whatever condition and with an incomparable speed. It was also the only ship that wasn t afraid of any weather. All ships built as a development copy of the monoreme, bireme or trireme, were bad copies, without any capacity of fast maneuvring (the trireme could easily turn on itself, like a tank, with an incredible movement of 30 degrees). This coque was perfecly developed 3000 years ago, in its 3 variants (mono, bi and trireme). It is true that the trireme was not exclusively used by the military navy. It is impossible that 3000 years ago at Korynthos, aliens have built this ship. The only explanation is that a tradition of naval engineering existed long before, 1000s of years before. The other kinds of coque (monoreme or bireme) were used for exploration or commercial missions of long distance.

  • Theodore Lichacz

    Consider that ancient mining stopped because the principal fuel source to refine it may have played out?

    • ΧΑΡΑΛΑΜΠΟς

      arcenic too (early bronze time !)

  • Steve J.

    Considering that BC period mining was determined to have stopped about the same time as the bronze age in Europe stopped, there would be a good bet as to the reason why it stopped here. That and the older mines are dated to coincide directly with that same bronze age period. Unless that is we are still of the silly assumption that roughly 500,000 tons of copper was mined by the ancient Indians to make simple tools, jewelry and hooks with and there is no evidence that they ever used anywhere near even a fraction of that much copper in their culture. So where did all that copper go? Doesn’t matter right?

    We’ll forgo logical reasoning and let a remedial science that can’t prove anything it can’t dig up (unless it’s looking to prove something 😉 ) decide common sense. We’ll also dismiss that 10 tons of copper oxhide ingots recovered from the late Bronze Age (1300 BC) Uluburun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey was “extraordinarily pure” (more than 99.5% pure), and that it was not the product of smelting from ore. The oxhides are all brittle “blister copper”, with voids, slag bits, and oxides, created when the oxhides were made in multiple pourings outdoors over wood fires. Only Michigan Copper is of this purity.

    I know, it doesn’t fit the mold we’re trying to adhere to and raises to many eyebrows, so even though it’s fact, we’ll discard it in this pile of refuse over here with all the other stuff we were looking for. Yes, it was the primitive North American Indians who mined all that copper for their use, even though their ancient stories speak specifically of light skinned men who came and mined the copper…men who even had advanced ways of detecting it. We can’t believe that though as the were a stupid story making people and our stories are much better and believable.

    I guess we’re just getting used to the “planet is not flat” theory and Columbus WAS the first white man to step foot in North American too, so don’t expect this tortoise pace logic and science to move any faster. I just don’t understand who benefits and sleeps better from continued closed-minded and doggedly stubborn ideology. And people think religious zealots, as well as UFO and Bigfoot believers are nuts.

    Archaeology: The science of proving what we want to believe and already stubbornly believe, while occasionally finding a new wrinkle or fact along the way, but only if it fits out predetermined path of belief. Sound about right?

    • Ron Engdahl

      I read the story about the ship wreck off of Turkey also that Europe did not know where all the copper they were using came from.

    • Nathan Holt

      Spot on