Fluid flow within sediments in the San Diego Trough, off the coast of California, has evolved over the past 5 million years. Early on, hot water and gas spewed from active, bounding faults, driven by pressure from overlying sedimentary layers. But now hydrocarbons, including the greenhouse gas methane, seep slowly from the seafloor, driven by buoyancy [Boles et al., 2004].
The methane seepage in the San Diego Trough appeared to taper off starting in 2013, but now it appears to be active again. Changes in hydrostatic pressure due to sea level are not thought to have significantly changed over the past 2–3 years. Could recent earthquake activity have reactivated the methane seeps?
This was one of the questions on the minds of a group of early-career scientists as they took to the sea. From 1 to 17 December 2016, 21 graduate students and postdoctoral researchers participated in a marine geology and geophysics expedition on board the R/V Sikuliaq as it transited between Honolulu, Hawaii, and San Diego, Calif.
The at-sea scientific and leadership training experience, called the Chief Scientist Training Cruise (CSTC), was organized by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) and was funded by the National Science Foundation. The yearly CSTCs aim to expose and prepare early-career scientists to take on leadership roles in planning, funding, and executing international collaborative seagoing expeditions.
Below is a progress report from one of those subgroups, whose members designed one leg of the expedition. This subgroup, informed by prior observations of methane seeps and faulting activity in the California Borderlands and the Santa Monica Basin [Maloney et al., 2015], made plans to map and observe these features in higher resolution.
Preparing to Come Aboard
The CSTC participants got to work before even stepping on board the ship. During 2 days on land, they worked in subgroup sessions, hosted at the Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, to present competing proposals of feasible science objectives, appropriate target locations, and suitable methodologies that maximized the overall use of the 2-week transit.
The participants gained experience in designing and testing scientific hypotheses, manipulating the ship’s onboard technologies, and adhering to limitations imposed by the vessel’s capabilities. This scientific decision-making process was accompanied by lessons in managing real-world constraints of seagoing research, like unpredictable weather and team members’ scheduling.
As a part of the team’s preparation, they reviewed what scientists knew about the methane seeps in the San Diego Trough and decided how best to use their cruise time to help answer several puzzling questions.
Methane seepage appears to start and stop over periods of a few years, but questions remain about this pulsating behavior and how it is related to the fluid pressure in the area at any given time [Grupe et al., 2015; Maloney et al., 2015]. Previous studies have demonstrated that any variable affecting hydrostatic pressure (i.e., tides and sea level changes) could influence the stability of methane seepage [Boles et al., 2001].
Although most of the methane released from the seafloor dissolves before reaching the atmosphere, methane released in vigorous, episodic bursts (like the methane burst in the 2015 video below) could travel farther up the water column. If scientists are to make accurate estimates of seep mobilization and the amount of gas released into the ocean and atmosphere, they must understand the processes that control the dynamics of seeps.
Ongoing research is investigating the large-scale processes by which this gas can affect ocean chemistry and greenhouse gas concentrations. At present, however, no one knows how significantly this source contributes to the global methane budget and how that could be altered under a future climate change regime [Kessler, 2014].
Active faulting and slumping in offshore environments could alter the dynamics of methane seepage activity [Paull et al., 2008; Yelisetti et al., 2014]. Studies of recent earthquakes off the coast of Southern California suggest that at least some of the faults in this region are, indeed, active [Hauksson et al., 2014].
Bottom-simulating reflectors, structures with acoustic signatures that mimic the seafloor’s signal and that are commonly associated with methane hydrates, have previously been observed within the California Borderland and the Santa Monica Basin [Torres et al., 2002]. Previous research has shown that fluid movement is actively associated with fault rupturing [Eichbul and Boles, 2000]. Thus, the extent of these hydrate deposits and the associated methane seepage activity may be connected to seismic activity.
Measuring the Methane
The CSTC participants collected acoustic reflection data using a subbottom profiler. They also gathered multibeam bathymetry and water column data using multibeam sonar with adjustable frequencies to identify active faults and associated methane hydrates (Figure 1).
The survey team revisited the previously surveyed Del Mar Seep located in the San Diego Trough offshore of Del Mar, Calif. Surveyors using multibeam bathymetry, subbottom profiler data, and video from a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) in 2012 were the first to observe this seep’s activity [Maloney et al., 2015]. A return survey in 2013 did not detect bubble activity [Grupe et al., 2015], suggesting that the seep was not active at that time.
The team aboard the R/V Sikuliaq during its visit on 16 December 2016 observed that the seep became active again. Data from the subbottom profiler helped to determine the exact subsurface location of the methane seep on the basis of disruption in sedimentary layers (Figure 2). The team observed methane seeps covering a 300-meter distance along their scan at a depth of 1,020 meters (Figures 1 and 2).
The seeps appear to be associated with a small mound feature on the seafloor. The shallow subsurface sedimentary layers are shifted by about 7–10 meters on either side of the seep location (Figure 2). Figure 3 shows the location where the team obtained a cross section of the water column multibeam data. Bubbles associated with the seep are visible in the water column (Figure 4).
Valuable Training, Real Research Results
Ongoing questions about how methane seeps start and stop and what happens to the methane once it escapes the seafloor sediments will continue to drive scientific research for years to come. However, the results of this expedition highlight the impact of training early-career scientists and the importance of providing them with adequate tools and resources that teach them to plan and execute shipboard work in marine investigations. With the contributions to the community from newer, better-prepared generations of marine scientists, ocean exploration will remain at the forefront of critical scientific discoveries.
This year’s UNOLS CSTC ran from 26 September to 2 October, and the participants are hard at work processing the data they collected. Additional information about the UNOLS CSTC, a list of all 2016 participants, and a summary of the 2016 expedition can be found on the UNOLS website.
We thank UNOLS, the National Science Foundation for the funding, all of the Chief Scientist Training Cruise participants (Jacob Beam, Amanda Blackburn, Mary Dzaugis, Lauren Frisch, Timothy Hodson, Tom Lankiewicz, Joseph Niehaus, Megan Roberts, Cameron Schwalbach, Ben Urann, Lauren Watson, and Christina Wertman, and the authors of this manuscript), and the R/V Sikuliaq shipboard operators and staff.
Boles, J. R., et al. (2001), Temporal variation in natural methane seep rate due to tides, Coal Oil Point area, California, J. Geophys. Res., 106(C11), 27,077–27,086, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JC000774.
Boles, J. R., et al. (2004), Evolution of a hydrocarbon migration pathway along basin-bounding faults: Evidence from fault cement, AAPG Bull., 88(7), 947–970.
Eichbul, P., and J. R. Boles (2000), Rates of fluid flow in fault systems—Evidence for episodic rapid fluid flow in the Miocene Monterey Formation, coastal California, Am. J. Sci., 300, 571–600, https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.300.7.571.
Grupe, B. M., et al. (2015), Methane seep ecosystem functions and services from a recently discovered southern California seep, Mar. Ecol., 36(S1), 91–108, https://doi.org/10.1111/maec.12243.
Hauksson, E., et al. (2014), Active Pacific North America Plate boundary tectonics as evidenced by seismicity in the oceanic lithosphere offshore Baja California, Mexico, Geophys. J. Int., 196(3), 1619–1630, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggt467.
Kessler, J. (2014), Seafloor methane: Atlantic bubble bath, Nat. Geosci., 7, 625–626, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2238.
Maloney, J. M., et al. (2015), Transpressional segment boundaries in strike-slip fault systems offshore southern California: Implications for fluid expulsion and cold seep habitats, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(10), 4080–4088, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063778.
Paull, C. K., et al. (2008), Association among active seafloor deformation, mound formation, and gas hydrate growth and accumulation within the seafloor of the Santa Monica Basin, offshore California, Mar. Geol., 250, 258–275, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2008.01.011.
Torres, M. E., J. McManus, and C.-A. Huh (2002), Fluid seepage along the San Clemente Fault scarp: Basin-wide impact on barium cycling, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 203, 181–194, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00800-2.
Yelisetti, S., G. D. Spence, and M. Riedel (2014), Role of gas hydrates in slope failure on frontal ridge of northern Cascadia margin, Geophys. J. Int., 199(1), 441–458, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggu254.
Anastasia G. Yanchilina (email: email@example.com), Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel; Subbarao Yelisetti, Department of Physics and Geosciences, Texas A&M University–Kingsville; Monica Wolfson-Schwehr, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, Calif.; Nicholas Voss, School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, Tampa; Thomas Bryce Kelly, Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee; Jennifer Brizzolara, College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg; Kristin L. Brown, College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Juneau; John M. Zayac, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, N.Y.; Megan Fung, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y.; Melania Guerra, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle; Bernard Coakley, Department of Geosciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks; and Robert Pockalny, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett
Yanchilina, A. G.,Yelisetti, S.,Wolfson-Schwehr, M.,Voss, N.,Kelly, T. B.,Brizzolara, J.,Brown, K. L.,Zayac, J. M.,Fung, M.,Guerra, M.,Coakley, B., and Pockalny, R. (2017), Exploring methane gas seepage in the California borderlands, Eos, 98, https://doi.org/10.1029/2017EO087843. Published on 21 December 2017.
Text © 2017. The authors. CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
Except where otherwise noted, images are subject to copyright. Any reuse without express permission from the copyright owner is prohibited.